According to art. 14 of the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights stating that: “Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution”, States should offer asylum defined as “A form of protection given by a State on its territory, granted to a person who is unable to seek protection in his/her country of nationality and/or residence for fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion”,
An asylum seeker is defined as “A person who seeks safety from persecution or serious harm in a country other than his or her own and awaits a decision on the application for refugee status under relevant international and national instruments.” Not every asylum-seeker will ultimately be recognized as a refugee, but every refugee is initially an asylum-seeker.
In some countries, pending the assessment of their request for asylum, asylum seekers are granted a temporary residence and work permit that allows asylum-seekers to engage in regular forms of employment, apprenticeships and vocational training. If the asylum-seeker is not granted the refugee status, he/she is then usually considered as an irregular migrant.
Definitions are taken from the Glossary of Migration edited by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the UN Migration Agency https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/iml_34_glossary.pdf